English essay on Mahatma Gandhi | Essay in mahatma gandhi

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Introduction:

Gandhi’s full name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was an anti-colonial nationalist, an Indian lawyer, and the father of the nation. Moreover, Gandhi became a great soul (Mahatma) and played a vital role in India’s Independence struggle. He was a man of ideologies, tremendous patience, and courage.

Birth, Childhood, Family, and Background of Gandhi:

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (aka Mahatma Gandhi) was born on 2 October 1869. He was born at Porbandar (Sudamapuri) into a Gujarati Hindu Modh Bania family. His birthday on 2 October is celebrated worldwide as the international day of non-violence. He belonged to a well-to-do family, and he has two elder brothers and one sister. Accordingly, he is the fourth and youngest son of Karamchand Gandhi and Putlibai. His father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi, served as the Chief Minister (Diwan) of Porbandar. His mother, Putlibai, was a very holy and generous lady.

Marriage:

In May 1883, when Gandhi was 13-year-old, he married a 14-year-old girl, Kasturbai. At the same time, his brother and cousin were also married. Furthermore, Gandhi and Kasturba had four children, Harilal (1888), Manilal (1892), Ramdas (1897), and Devdas (1900).

Education of Mahatma Gandhi:

When Gandhi was nine years old, he went to a regional school at Rajkot. He studied history, geography, arithmetic, and languages. At 11, Gandhi went to a high school in Rajkot. Because of his wedding, at least one year, his studies were disturbed, and later, he joined and completed his schooling. He joined Samaldas college in Bhavnagar in 1888 at Gujarat. After that, one of his family friends, Mavji Dave Joshi, studied law in London.

So, Mahatma Gandhi went to England to study law. However, the traditional people created a lot of obstacles in his way as they considered crossing the seas to be against religious principles. Moreover, Gandhiji found great difficulty getting vegetarian food in England. Still, he could finally locate a restaurant that served such food. Eventually, Mahatma Gandhi studied law from London and returned to India as a barrister in June 1891.

Besides, He started practice at Rajkot and Bombay but failed. Indeed, Gandhi was a young man of introverted nature, and when Gandhi appeared before the judge for a case, he could not speak a single word. After his inability to cross-examine witnesses, In 1893, he went to South Africa to continue his practice of law, where he faced solid racial discrimination by the Britishers. During his 21 years in South Africa, Gandhi grew political views. However, the major incident that completely changed the young Gandhi was when he has thrown off from a train’s first-class compartment at Pietermaritzburg due to his race and color.

Why was Gandhi called Mahatma?

Mahatma is from the Sanskrit words where maha means Great and Atma means Soul. Poet and Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore has accorded the title to Gandhi in 1915. 

Contributions of Mahatma Gandhi:

There are many contributions of Mahatma Gandhi to this nation. He was a freedom fighter, social reformer, preacher, politician, and lawyer.

Reforms of Mahatma Gandhi:

Mahatma Gandhi was a social reformer and he seak for many social issues. He tried to remove Casteism, communal discrimination, untouchability, polygamy, the purdah system, and drug abuse. Besides, Gandhi Ji always wanted people from different religions to live together in India. In addition, He also tried to promote the Khadi and Charkha under his self-reliant principle.

Movements:

These are the movement led by Mahatma Gandhi.

Champaran Satyagraha (1917):

The Champaran Satyagraha in Bihar was the first satyagraha movement and the first active involvement of Gandhi in the Indian freedom fight. When MK Gandhi returned to India from South Africa in 1915, the nation was staggering under tyrannous British Raj. The British forced the tenants to grow indigo on a portion of their fertile land and then deal it at a much lower price. 

Kheda Satyagraha (1918):

The Kheda movement resulted from the financial atrocities afflicted by the British landlords on the farmers of the Kheda district in Gujarat. British authorities had increased the taxes of Kheda in 1918 while The town was massively affected by the famine. The farmers of Kheda requested the British administration to exempt them from paying taxes, but the authorities rejected the charter. Under the leadership of Vallabhbhai Patel and Mahatma Gandhi, farmers started a Satyagraha against the British government and committed to the non-payment of taxes.

Khilafat Movement (1919):

After World War I, The Muslims became fearful for the protection of their Caliph. So Muslims of British India launched an Indian Muslim movement. Besides, Gandhi Ji also guided the khilafat movement to battle against the British government. Finally, The goal of the Khilafat Movement was to restore the collapsing status of the Caliph in Turkey.

Rowlatt Act (1919):

The British government passed Revolutionary Crimes Act, the Rowlatt Act to give powers to the police to arrest any person without any reason. Imperial Legislative Council passed this act on 18 March 1919. To cancel this act, Gandhi and the other leaders called for a satyagraha to protest, called the Rowlatt Satyagraha.

Dandi March (1930):

Dandi March was a Satyagraha against the British salt monopoly. Mahatma Gandhi started it on 12 March 1930 to obtain Indians the right to collect, produce and sell salt along the seashore. But, Gandhiji and his companions violated the Salt Law by taking a lump of salty mud and then boiling it in seawater and producing illegal salt at Dandi near Gujarat sea-coast. It led to his arrest on 5 May 1930. But, this simple act of non-violent civil disobedience of Mahatma Gandhi awakened Indian residents from their sleep. Henceforth, they were not afraid of breaking any British law.

Gandhi Irwin Pact (1931):

The well-known Dandi March was the root of the Civil Disobedience Movement started by Mahatma Gandhi. 

Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin, Viceroy of India, signed a political agreement on 5 March 1931 because the British government wanted to stop the Salt March. 

To prevent the Dandi March, the British government agreed to 

Withdraw all ordinances and end prosecutions, 

Release all political prisoners, except those guilty of violence, Permit peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops, Restore confiscated properties of the Satyagrahis, 

Permit free collection or manufacture of salt by persons near the sea-coast, 

Lift the ban over Congress.

Non-cooperation movement:

The Non-Cooperation Movement (NCM) was formally launched on 1 August 1920 by Mahatma Gandhi as an opposition to the Rowlatt Act of 1919 and the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 13 April 1919 with the objective of ‘Swaraj’ or Self-Governance and securing complete independence from the British. Through the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement,’ a non-violent struggle, Gandhiji appealed to the people to boycott British-made clothing, goods, and other services and promote Khadi.

Quit India Movement:

In 1940, Mahatma Gandhi started the Individual movement and appointed Vinoba Bhave and Nehru. He also founded the Quit India Movement on 8 August 1942 and gave the call “Do or Die.” British arrested almost all the leaders of Congress. At the same time, The workers were walking out of work in factories, and pupils were absent from schools. The vendors closed their shops. Though never desired or planned by Mahatma, there were signs of rebellion in the army. 

What are Gandhi’s accomplishments?

Mahatma Gandhi was a man with a mission who fought for the country’s independence. He gave his priceless contribution in uprooting various evils of society. The achievements of Mahatma Gandhi is summarized below:

  1. He was a Civil rights activist in South Africa and fought against racial discrimination.
  2. Mahatma Gandhi won his first combat against the selfish attitude of the British at Champaran with the help of civil disobedience.
  3. He successfully led a non-violent tax rebellion against the financial atrocities of the British landlords in Kheda.
  4. He led the famous political campaign “Non-cooperation movement” in the early 1920s.
  5. Mahatma Gandhi led the famous Dandi Salt March to challenge the British-imposed salt tax.
  6. He launched the Quit India Movement, or August Movement, in 1942 to end British rule in India.
  7. Mahatma Gandhi was the leading figure responsible for India achieving independence.
  8. He fought against social evils in society like untouchability.
  9. Mahatma Gandhi was Man of the Year in 1930 Time magazine and runner-up to Einstein in Time’s Person of the Century in 1999.

Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi:

Mahatma Gandhi has influenced many international leaders around the world. His work undoubtedly became an inspiration for leaders. Martin Luther King Jr., James Beve, and James Lawson. Furthermore, Gandhi influenced Nelson Mandela for his freedom struggle. Also, Lanza del Vasto came to India to live with Gandhi.

Mahatma Gandhi Death:

Gandhi was walking with his great-niece Manu in the garden of Birla Bhavan (Gandhi Smriti in central New Delhi) at 5:17 pm on 30 January 1948. On his way to address an inter-faith prayer meeting, Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist from western India, fired three bullets from a pistol at close range into his chest. According to some accounts, Gandhi died instantly. However, Mahatma Gandhi died about 30 minutes later as one of Gandhi’s family members read verses from Hindu scriptures.

Conclusion:

People in India also call Gandhi Bapu or Rastrapita. Besides, Gandhi’s birthday, 2 October, is celebrated worldwide as the International Day of Nonviolence. So in this “English essay on Mahatma Gandhi,” now you know many things about the life of Gandhi. Thank,s for reading English essay on Mahatma Gandhi.

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