In this writing, you will learn about the health problems in India. And also causes of health problems in India. so let,s see health problems in India…
Health in India:
As per the world bank, India is the world’s second-most-populous country with 1.38 billion and among the fastest-growing economies globally, but it experiences challenges in public health. India’s Healthcare sector is one of the fastest-growing. However, lack of availability is still a big problem for the vast population.
India is home to the best pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, world-class scientists, and hospitals. Significant public health challenges in India; child undernutrition, high neonatal and maternal mortality rates. In addition, non-communicable diseases, high rates of road traffic accidents, and other health-related issues are also growing in India.
Status of Indian Health:
- The life expectancy for Indian males is 66.4 years, and for females, it is 69.6 years.
- The infant mortality rate was 74 per 1,000 live births in 1994; in 2015, it was 37 per 1,000 live births, while in 2016, it was 34.6 per 1,000 live births.
- In 1994 the mortality rate of under-five children was 113 per 1,000 live births, and in 2018 it was 41.1 per 1,000 live births.
- The maternal mortality rate was 212 per 100 000 live births in 2007–2009, and in 2011–2013 it was 167 per 100 000 live births.
- In a rural area of the country, the total fertility rate was 2.3 in 2015, while it was 1.8 in urban areas.
Common health issues in India:
Malnutrition is deficiencies, excesses, or imbalances in energy intake and nutrients. The term malnutrition covers two broad groups of conditions.
One is undernutrition – which includes
- Low height for age
- Lack of essential vitamins and minerals
- Low weight for height
- Low weight for age
The other is overweight, obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer). India has one of the world’s highest demographics of children suffering from malnutrition, and 60% of India’s children below three were malnourished in 2005.
As a result, India’s Global Hunger Index ranking is 101st out of the 116 countries. In addition, 44% of children under the age of 5 are underweight, while 72% of infants have anemia. In addition, One in every three malnourished children in the world lives in India.
States where malnutrition is prominent:
Uttar Pradesh: Malnutrition stunted most children under five in this India’s densest state by population. According to a health survey, 23% of children in Tamil Nadu are underweight. In comparison, 25% of Chennai children are of moderately stunted growth.
Madhya Pradesh: Madhya Pradesh has India’s highest number of malnourished children. According to 2015 data, 74.1% of children under six suffer from anemia and 60% malnutrition.
Jharkhand and Bihar These states have India’s second-highest number of malnourished children, at 56.5%. It is followed by Bihar, at 55.9%.
Forms of Malnutrition:
- Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
- Vitamin A deficiency
- Iodine deficiency
- Vitamin B complex deficiency
A well-nourished child’s weight and height measurements compare well within the standard distribution of healthy children of the same age and sex. However, a child is exposed to physical growth delays and the elevated risk of mortality, reduced immune defenses, and decreased cognitive capacities without sufficient nutrients in its daily intake.
Malnutrition limits the productivity of all its victims and thus perpetuates poverty. As with severe malnutrition, growth delays also clog a child’s intellectual development. Unwell children with chronic malnutrition often suffer from a lower learning capacity, especially when accompanied by anemia.
Girls are far more in danger of malnutrition than boys of their age due to their lower social status. Due to this cultural bias, up to one-third of all adult women in India are underweight. Moreover, inadequate care of these women during pregnancy leads them to deliver underweight babies.
Pathogenic biologic agents in a human or animal host result in transmissible diseases.
Tuberculosis is a decisive health issue and yields about 220,000 deaths per year in India. In 2020, the government made statements to eradicate TB, till 2025, through its National TB Elimination Program.
India has the third-largest HIV epidemic globally, with 2.1 million HIVs. India’s epidemic is among key affected populations, including sex workers and men who have sex with men.
The National Family Health Survey shows that childhood diarrhea has risen from 9% to 9.2% from 2016 to 2020. In addition, it is the third most common accountable disease for under-five mortality.
The actual load of rabies in India is not fully known. However, it causes 18 000-20 000 deaths every year, as per available information. About 30-60% of reported rabies deaths in India occur in children under 15 years.
According to the WMR 2019, India represents 3% of global malaria. Despite being the highest malaria country in the SEA region, India showed a reduction in reported malaria cases of 49% and deaths of 50.5% compared with 2017.
With around 146,700 new cases per year, Kala-azar is a significant health problem in India. A parasite causes illness after migrating to internal organs such as the liver and bone marrow in the disease. The disease almost always results in death If left untreated.
In 2017, India reported 1,88,401 dengue cases – the highest in the past 20 years.
India reported Chikungunya outbreaks from 1963–1973 and 2005–2019. In 2019, 81914 cases were for CHIKV, out of which 12205 (14.9%) were laboratory-confirmed chikungunya.
It is a worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 caused by SARS-CoV-2. On 20 January 2022, India had the second-highest number of confirmed cases globally, with 42,967,315 reported cases and the third-highest number of COVID-19 deaths at 515,102.
A report evaluated a national incidence of typhoid fever in India of 360 cases per 100000 person-years, with a yearly calculation of 4.5 million cases and 8930 deaths.
The study’s statistics conducted by the NICD show that jaundice is also India’s significant public health problem.
NCDs are not primarily yielded by acute infection and often create a need for long-term treatment. These conditions include cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and chronic lung illnesses.
In addition, we can prevent Many NCDs by reducing common risk factors such as tobacco use, alcohol use, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diets. Injuries and mental health disorders are also considered NCDs.
High blood pressure:
According to the 2017 National Family Health Survey, one in eight Indians suffers from hypertension. These are 207 million people (men 112 million, women 95 million). In addition, high BP is among the top causes of premature deaths in India.
There were increases in the prevalence and mortality rates among NCDs for pancreatitis, liver cancer, paralytic ileus, intestinal obstruction, gallbladder and biliary tract cancer, intestinal vascular disorders, colorectal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease.
There are about 1.3 billion residents in India, which is roughly four times of America. However, 72.9 million Indians had diabetes as of 2017, which rose from 40.9 million in 2007.
Neurological disorders :
Roughly 30 million people suffer from neurological disorders in India.
The Cardiovascular diseases death rate is 272 per 100 000 population in India. It is higher than the global average of 235 per 100 000 population.
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in India is 150–200 per million population. The number of kidney failure deaths was 136,000 in 2015. A 2018 report put the number of patients on chronic dialysis in India at about 175,000.
The cancer registry data calculated about 800,000 new cancers cases in India every year. Cancer sites associated with tobacco form 35 to 50% of all cancers in men and about 17% in women.
Infant mortality rate:
With an infant mortality rate of 32 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, India is neither the country with the highest nor the lowest infant mortality rate.
In 2008 there were more than 122 million families that had no toilets. The NDA Government in India claims to have built around 110 million toilets across India between 2014 and 2019. As a result, the basic sanitation coverage went up from 38.7% in October 2014 to 93.3% in 2019.
Female health issues:
Women in India face malnutrition, lack of maternal health, diseases like AIDS, breast cancer, domestic violence, and many more.
Contagious, infectious, and waterborne diseases dominate the morbidity pattern, especially in rural areas.
Name of diseases
- Worm infestations
- Whooping cough
- Respiratory infections
- Reproductive tract infections
37% of doctors (63% rural and 20% urban) had inadequate medical training in India. Moreover, other studies have reported unqualified urban providers’ poor quality of care. Location, location, location: residence, wealth, and the quality of medical care in Delhi.
India’s urban population has expanded from 285 million (2001) to 377 million (2011). The UN report says that 875 million Indians will live in towns and cities by 2050. According to a survey by the UN, 40.76% of the country’s population will reside in urban areas in 2030.
Uttar Pradesh has the most elevated under-five mortality rate (110 per 1,000 live births). India’s most populous state had 44.4 million urban inhabitants in 2011.
Only fifty-four percent of pregnant women had at least three antenatal care visits compared to 83 percent for the rest of the urban population.
For example, less than a quarter of mothers within the poorest quartile received good maternity care in Bihar (12%), and Uttar Pradesh (20%), and less than half in Madhya Pradesh (38%), Delhi (41%), Rajasthan (42%), and Jharkhand (48%).
54% of urban children were of stunted growth, and 47% were underweight in the poorest urban quartile in 2005–06. For example, a study carried out in the slums of Delhi showed that 51% of slum families were food insecure.
Health education programs:
The Indian government has executed several initiatives to increase healthcare opportunities and access in rural and urban slums. Still, research suggests that slum residents remain ignorant of the significance of being immunized.
Some organizations continue to provide service by opening medical facilities in inner-city areas or advocating for infrastructural change. At the same time, Newer organizations are increasingly enlightening the people on health care resources through health education agendas.
For example, after a conversation between health experts and slum households, many residents turned to public facilities rather than private hospitals to receive adequate treatment at no cost. In addition, through informational videos and posters implemented within a school setting, adolescents increased awareness of their dietary needs and their resources.
Preventive and Promotive Healthcare:
Mission Indradhanush is a health mission launched by Union Health Minister J. P. Nadda on 25 December 2014. The scheme seeks to drive towards 90% full immunization coverage of India and sustain the same by the year 2022.
Plans for Communicable Diseases:
- National Viral Hepatitis Control Program
- Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme
- National Leprosy Eradication Programme
- Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme
- National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme
- National AIDS Control Programme
- Pulse Polio Programme
For Non-communicable Diseases:
- Integrated Child Development Services
- National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme
- Mid-Day Meal Programme
- Ayushman Bharat Yojana
- National Program of Health Care for the Elderly
- Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health
- National Rural Health Mission
- National Urban Health Mission
In this article, you learned about many health problems in India. So, Keep learning from this website and keep motivating.
You can also read this…