Child labor in india | Essays on child labor | Essay about child labor

We provided the “Child labor in INDIA essay” to learn everything about India’s child labor. In it, students will learn about the problem of child labor in India, the cause of child labor in India, the law of child labor in India, and the age of child labor in India. In addition, this will help students write an engaging “child labor in India essay.” Furthermore, the students should be aware of this problem of India so that they can help eliminate it in the future.


Child labor in India:

Have you ever wondered what child labor does? Child labor exploits children through any form of work and steals their childhood. In addition, child labor is harmful to children’s mental and physical health. According to the national census of India, 5 to 14-year-old child laborers were 10.1 million in 2011. In comparison, the total number of children between 5 to 14 years of age was 259.64 million in 2011. So, child labor in India is a huge problem.

The problem of child labor in India:

The situation of child labor in India is enormous because this nation is home to the most significant number of children working illegally. In India, Agriculture is the largest sector where numerous children labor at early ages to help support their households.

Age of child labor in India:

In India, If someone forces a person below the age of 14 to do any job, including domestic help, it is considered child labor. At the same time, it is illegal when someone forces a person between the age of 14 and 18 to do a hazardous occupation, including mining, flammable substance, and explosives-related work.

Law of child labor in India:

The Indian government legislated many laws to protect the right of children. These are the acts for eradicating child labor in India.

  1. Factories Act, 1948
  2. Mines Act, 1952
  3. The Child Labour Act of (Prohibition and Regulation), 1986
  4. Right to Education Act (Free and Compulsory), 2009
  5. Juvenile Justice Act of Children (Care and Protection), 2015
  6. Child Labour Amendment Act (Prohibition & Regulation), 2016
  7. Child Labour Amendment Rules (Prohibition and Regulation), 2017

Factories Act, 1948:

Ministry of Labour and Employment administered The Factories Act, 1948. It bans the employment of children below 14 years in any factory. This act includes rules of working hours, health protection, safety, the welfare of the workers. Penalties are also described in this act if someone violates the laws.

Chapters & Provisions:

The first chapter is about Preliminary.

The second chapter is about The Inspecting Staff.

The third chapter is about health.

The fourth chapter is about Safeties.

4A chapter is about Provisions relating to Hazardous Processes.

The fifth chapter is about Welfare & Grievance.

The sixth chapter is about the Working hours of adults.

The seventh chapter is about the employment of young persons.

The eighth chapter is about Annual leave with wages.

The ninth chapter is about Special provisions.

The tenth chapter is about Penalties and procedures.

The eleventh chapter is about Supplemental.

Mines Act, 1952:

The act prohibits a person below 18 years of age in a mine. There is a sufficient supply of ‘calm and wholesome drinking water for all the employed persons. There shall be an adequate number of toilets and urinals separate for males and females. Toilets and urinals should be conveniently situated and available to employed persons at all times. According to this act, It is necessary to provide adequately ventilated, lit, clean, and hygienic bathrooms and urinals. Every mine shall have several first aid boxes accessible during all working hours. Suppose a mine hires more than 150 employees. In that case, it shall provide a separate first aid room with a prescribed number of medical staff and equipment.

The Child Labour Act (Prohibition and Regulation),1986:

A “Child” is any person below 14. The CLPR Act prohibits a child’s employment in any employment, including as domestic help (except helping their own family in non-hazardous occupations). Therefore, it is a cognizable criminal offense to employ a Child for any work. Besides, An adolescent is a person between 14 and 18. 

According to this law, employers can hire adolescents to do any job except.

  • Mining, 
  • Flammable substance, 
  • Explosives-related work, 
  • Other hazardous jobs (as per the Factories Act, 1948).

Right to Education Act (Free and Compulsory), 2009:

According to this act, free and compulsory education is mandatory for all children from 6 to 14 years. In addition, RTE Act 2009 also mandated that 25 percent of seats in every private school for children from economically underprivileged groups. India is among 135 countries that made education a fundamental right of every child. Right to Education Act (Free and Compulsory), 2009 came into force on 1 April 2010. In 2005, the sub-committee of the Central Advisory Board of Education prepared a rough draft of the bill. On 2 July 2009, The bill was approved by the cabinet. But On 7 May 2014, the Indian supreme court ruled that the Right to Education Act does not apply to Minority institutions. On 20 July 2009, Rajya Sabha passed the bill while the Lok Sabha on 4 August 2009.

Juvenile Justice Act of Children (Care and Protection), 2015:

Indian Parliament passed the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015. The law came into force on 15 January 2016. According to this act, if a person keeps a child in bondage for employment, it is a crime punishable with a prison term. Lok Sabha passed this bill on 7 May 2015 amid intense protest by many MPs. Besides, It was passed on 22 December 2015 by the Rajya Sabha. Maneka Gandhi, Minister of Women and Child Development, introduced this bill. According to this bill, the Juvenile Justice Board, including psychologists and social workers, can decide whether a juvenile criminal is an adult or not who is 16-18.

The bill also aims to simplify the adoption process for orphaned, abandoned, and surrendered children. In addition, The Juvenile Justice Act of Children introduces foster care in India, and the families who signed up for foster care can receive abandoned and orphaned children. Besides, the state will provide financial aid to families that receive left and orphaned children. The state will also monitor such families. According to this act, if a person gives alcohol or drugs to a child, then punishment is seven years imprisonment or 100,000 rupees fine.

Cause of child labor in India:

According to UNICEF and (ILO) the International Labour Organization, poverty is the most significant cause behind child labor. In rural and impoverished parts of developing countries, children have no option except child labor. So, Children work because they have nothing more reasonable to do. For low-income families, earnings from a child’s work are usually crucial for their survival or the family. According to a report by the BBC, poverty and insufficient public education infrastructure are some reasons for child labor in India. In addition, children don’t have facilities like schools and teachers in the poor parts of the world. According to UNICEF, girls are two times more likely to be out of school and work in a domestic role than boys.

In rural areas:

Numerous children in rural areas do not go to school because the schools are too far from their homes, and the quality of the education is also inferior. Because the quality of education in rural areas is low, parents wonder if sending the child to school is worth it. Moreover, for Indian parents educating girls is a lower priority because they used to harass or bully girls at schools. As a result, many girls in India are kept from school or drop out, then provided child labor because of their gender. Moreover, in government schools in India, the teachers do not come 25% in the year. A report of UNICEF shows that 90% of child labor in India is in its rural areas.

Many low-income families in India believe that every child is a bread-earner, so they have more children. Illiterate families are also a contributing factor to child labor. After all, they think that education is a burden because they need to invest more than their child labor returns. When the parents don’t have enough earnings, they put the family’s children to work to have enough money to survive. As a result, children work in unhygienic conditions, late working hours, and various difficulties. These things affect the mental development of children. If adults of the family do not want to do the job, then the younger ones have to work in their place. In addition, lack of decent work opportunities for grown-ups is also a reason for this problem.


Child labor is not the problem of India, but it is one of the major problems of the world. A country full of child labor cannot progress because children belong in schools, not factories. Therefore, it should be the joint responsibility of society and the government to deliver these poor kids with a healthful and facilitative environment. But instead, child labor restrains children of their right to go to school. In addition, child labor also hinders teaching, impacting a child’s attendance and school performance. Finally, in this “Child labor in INDIA essay,” you learned many things about India’s child labor. So guys, keep learning and keep growing with enjoyment.

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